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Depending on the type of chemotherapy prescribed, the medications may be given by mouth, injection, intravenously (IV), or topically. IV chemotherapy may be delivered via a catheter or port, which is usually implanted in a blood vessel of the chest for the duration of the therapy. Sometimes chemotherapy is chronic fatigue regionally, directly to the area that needs treatment.

For example, intravesical therapy is used to infuse chemotherapy directly into the bladder for the treatment of bladder cancer. The chemotherapy regimen a patient receives depends upon the type and stage of the cancer, any prior cancer treatment, and Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA overall health of the patient.

Chemotherapy is usually administered in cycles over the course of days, weeks, or months, with rest periods in between. In addition to surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, other therapies are used to treat cancer. These include:Targeted or biological therapies seek to treat Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA and boost the body's immune system while minimizing damage to normal, healthy cells.

Monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulating drugs, vaccines, and cytokines are examples of targeted or biological therapies. Angiogenesis inhibitors are medications that inhibit the growth of new blood vessels that cancerous tumors need in order to grow. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the application of laser energy of a specific wavelength to tissue that has been treated with a photosensitizing agent, a medication that makes cancerous tissue susceptible to destruction with laser treatment.

Photodynamic therapy selectively destroys cancer cells while minimizing the damage to normal, healthy tissues nearby. Ongoing cancer research continues to identify newer, less toxic, and more effective cancer treatments. Visit the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to see a list of ongoing clinical trials. Only 200 new cases of temporal bone cancer may be diagnosed each year across the United States. Malignancies of the temporal bone arise most commonly from the pinna and lateral concha because these sites are likely to have undergone many years of sun exposure.

Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA these areas, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are most common. The most common type of primary cancer in the EAC is squamous cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone may originate from the EAC or middle ear where chronic otorrhea and inflammation, cholesteatoma, or both may be associated risk factors. Adenocarcinoma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, lymphoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and acinic cell carcinoma are other types of malignancies that may arise in the temporal Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA. In children, rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common malignancy of the temporal bone.

Tumors, such as meningioma, chordoma, parotid malignancy, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, may spread to the temporal bone from contiguous sites. The temporal bone may also be a site for metastasis from lymphoma or malignant tumors of the breast, lung, kidney, or prostate.

In addition, metastasis to the temporal bone tended to be a late event, subsequent to metastasis of the primary malignancy to other parts of the body. Histologic examination is important because, although CT scanning provides important preoperative staging information, systematic pathologic evaluation of the specimen is crucial for staging and treatment. Primary radiation is ineffective for curative treatment. In the most extreme cases in which contraindications to surgery are serious deterrents to an operation, palliative radiation and chemotherapy may be offered.

The literature supports a beneficial effect of adjunctive radiation on survival, but no well-controlled studies have been performed. Postoperative radiation treatment may be indicated in advanced disease. Most authors advocate full course postoperative radiation to stage T3 or T4 tumors as defined by the University of Pittsburgh staging system. Some authors also recommend radiation for T2 disease. The optimal surgery removes all of the cancer en bloc because positive margins Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA associated with poor survival rates.

However, fair-skinned whites are more Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA to nonmelanomatous skin cancers Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA other areas, especially areas exposed to ultraviolet radiation. A genetic predisposition to skin cancer may also exist, manifested as the development of skin cancers in sites not exposed to sunlight as well as sun-exposed areas.

Chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma are common in patients with temporal bone cancers and have been implicated as etiologic factors. Human papillomavirus has been implicated in squamous cell Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA of the middle ear.

The complex anatomy of the temporal bone makes tumor spread Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA to predict. Tumors of the skin around the auricle may extend along the soft tissues of the neck and ear.

The Elocon Lotion (Mometasone Furoate Lotion)- Multum tissues are a poor barrier against tumor spread, and eventually Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA tumors may extend along the conchal bowl and into the EAC.

The Sotylize (Sotalol Hydrochloride Oral Solution)- FDA of the EAC provides minimal resistance to tumor spread. The fissures of Santorini, foramen of Huschke, and Nexlizet (Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe Tablets)- FDA junctions are a source of direct access to the periparotid tissues and temporomandibular joint. Cancer in the external auditory meatus can invade posteriorly through the soft tissue into the retroauricular sulcus over the mastoid cortex.

Tumor growth medially along the EAC can extend through the tympanic membrane and bony tympanic ring, allowing invasion into the middle ear.

Once a tumor enters the middle ear, the hard bone of the otic capsule provides a more effective barrier against tumor spread. In the middle ear or mastoid, tumors spread easily via the eustachian tube, round and oval windows, neurovascular structures, and extensive air spaces of the mastoid cavity.

The eustachian tube and neurovascular structures of the middle ear are potential means of tumor spread beyond the temporal bone to the infratemporal fossa, nasopharynx, or neck. Aggressive tumors can erode through the tegmen tympani or mastoid into the middle or posterior fossa. The sigmoid sinus may become involved.

The dura, although somewhat resistant to invasion, portends a grave prognosis if involved. The facial nerve and the stylomastoid foramen are metastatic routes to the soft tissues of the neck and the parotid. Proximal extension along the facial nerve leads toward the inner ear and posterior fossa.

Leonetti et al (1996) offer an excellent review of the invasion patterns of temporal bone cancer. Lymphatic drainage of the medial EAC and middle ear is to the retropharyngeal nodes or deep jugular nodes.

The lymphatic drainage of the inner ear is unknown.



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12.02.2019 in 12:53 Марина:
В этом что-то есть. Теперь всё понятно, спасибо за объяснение.